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April 2016

Dear South African Law Reports and Criminal Law Reports subscriber

Herewith the cases in the April law reports.

•    Click on the case name to download the original judgment.

JUDGMENTS OF INTEREST IN THE APRIL EDITIONS OF THE SALR AND THE SACR

 

SOUTH AFRICAN LAW REPORTS

Can hacked electronic data be used as evidence?

Under the Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, anyone who intentionally accesses or intercepts data without authority or permission to do so, is guilty of an offence. Is data so obtained admissible in court? Harvey v Niland and Others 2016 (2) SA 436 (ECG)

No eviction before appeal

Mr Mathale lived in a house for 20 years, and resisted eviction while he appealed the execution order. To have his home taken away while he defended his rights in the courts, given the sanctity of a home, would not be just and equitable. Mathale v Linda and Another 2016 (2) SA 461 (CC)

The Public Protector

The nature of the Public Protector’s power ‘to take appropriate remedial action’ included the power to determine the remedy, and to direct its implementation. Her findings had legal consequences until set aside, and her recommendations of remedial action had to be implemented. If a body disputed them, its remedy was review. South African Broadcasting Corporation SOC Ltd and Others v Democratic Alliance and Others 2016 (2) SA 522 (SCA)

 

SOUTH AFRICAN CRIMINAL LAW REPORTS

A king in a constitutional democracy

A king set fire to the houses and crops of subsistence farmers; assaulted three young men so severely that even his henchmen could not bear to watch; kidnapped the wife and children of a subject he considered to be a dissident; and issued a fine of ten head of cattle to the bereaved father of a son killed by the king’s supporters. The appellant contended that he was a caring and compassionate king, and that his behaviour was beyond reproach. S v Dalindyebo 2016 (1) SACR 329 (SCA)

Plea-and-sentence agreement

The accused assaulted and abused a 5-year-old boy, causing his death. The court was not happy with the plea-and-sentence agreement, and imposed a different sentence. On appeal, it was held that when a trial judge regards the plea-agreement sentence as unjust, he should, at the outset of the trial, inform the parties of this view and also of the sentence he considers fair. S v DJ 2016 (1) SACR 377 (SCA)

Template for search warrants to be revised

A specific official entrusted to execute search should be identified; the specific statutory offence, including the statute and section applicable, should be stated; and the affidavit on which the warrant was granted by a magistrate should be made available to the person in charge of the premises at the time of the search. Goqwana v Minister of Safety and Security NO and Others 2016 (1) SACR 384 (SCA)

 

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 SOUTH AFRICAN LAW REPORTS
 TABLE OF CASES
 
  • Director of Public Prosecutions, Gauteng v Pistorius 2016 (2) SA 317 (SCA)
  • Kham and Others v Electoral Commission and Another 2016 (2) SA 338 (CC)
  • Heritage Hill Devco (Pty) Ltd v Heritage Hill Homeowners Association 2016 (2) SA 387 (GP)
  • Nelson Mandela Bay Metro v Georgiou t/a Georgiou Guesthouse & Spa and Others 2016 (2) SA 394 (ECP)
  • Twala v MEC for Education, Eastern Cape and Others 2016 (2) SA 425 (ECB)
  • Harvey v Niland and Others 2016 (2) SA 436 (ECG)
  • Naidoo and Others v Kalianjee NO and Others 2016 (2) SA 451 (SCA)
  • Mathale v Linda and Another 2016 (2) SA 461 (CC)
  • Land and Agricultural Development Bank of South Africa t/a Land Bank v Factaprops 1052 CC and Another 2016 (2) SA 477 (GP)
  • Tshwane City and Others v Nambiti Technologies (Pty) Ltd 2016 (2) SA 494 (SCA)
  • National Treasury and Another v Kubukeli 2016 (2) SA 507 (SCA)
  • Nel v Road Accident Fund 2016 (2) SA 517 (GP)
  • South African Broadcasting Corporation Soc Ltd and Others v Democratic Alliance and Others 2016 (2) SA 522 (SCA)
  • South African Airways Soc v BDFM Publishers (Pty) Ltd and Others 2016 (2) SA 561 (GJ)
  • Masstores (Pty) Ltd v Pick n Pay Retailers (Pty) Ltd and Another 2016 (2) SA 586 (SCA)
  • October and Another NO v Hendricks and Another 2016 (2) SA 600 (WCC)
  • Commissioner, South African Revenue Service v Stepney Investments (Pty) Ltd 2016 (2) SA 608 (SCA)
  • Blastrite (Pty) Ltd v Genpaco Ltd 2016 (2) SA 622 (WCC)
 
 FLYNOTES
 

DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC PROSECUTIONS, GAUTENG v PISTORIUS (SCA)

MPATI P, MHLANTLA JA, LEACH JA, MAJIEDT JA and BAARTMAN AJA

2015 NOVEMBER 3; DECEMBER 3
[2015] ZASCA 204

Criminal law - Murder—Mens rea—Intent to kill—Dolus eventualis—Whether present—Accused firing four shots at person behind toilet door.

Criminal law - Murder—Mens rea—Intent to kill—Exclusion—Putative private defence—Whether established.

Criminal procedure - Appeal—In what cases—On questions of law reserved—Prerequisite for reservation of questions of law that there be acquittal—Conviction on competent verdict to be regarded as acquittal on main count—Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977, s 319.

KHAM AND OTHERS v ELECTORAL COMMISSION AND ANOTHER (CC)

MOGOENG CJ, MOSENEKE DCJ, CAMERON J, JAFTA J, KHAMPEPE J, MADLANGA J, MATOJANE AJ, NKABINDE J, VAN DER WESTHUIZEN J, WALLIS AJ and ZONDO J

2015 SEPTEMBER 10; NOVEMBER 30
[2015] ZACC 37

Election law - Electoral irregularities—Impact on freeness and fairness—Defective voters’ roll allowing voters in municipal by-election to vote in districts in which they did not reside—Omission of voters’ addresses hampering canvassing by candidates and impairing their right to stand for election—Elections not free and fair.

Election law - Election—Duties of Independent Electoral Commission—Municipal election—Duty to register voters in correct voting districts—Duty to show addresses on voters’ roll—Duty to adhere to election timetable—Non-compliance resulting in elections not being free and fair—IEC’s handling of election criticised.

Constitutional law - Human rights—Right to free and fair elections—Right to stand for election—Irregularities in registration process and defects in voters’ roll impacting on ability of candidates to participate in municipal election—Elections not free and fair, irrespective of effect of irregularities on result of election—Elections set aside—Constitution, s 19.

HERITAGE HILL DEVCO (PTY) LTD v HERITAGE HILL HOMEOWNERS ASSOCIATION (GP)

RABIE J, LEGODI J and BAQWA J

2015 FEBRUARY 18; APRIL 24

Township - Developer—Rights and duties—Liability for levies imposed by homeowners’ association in terms of its articles of association on property owners in township—Developer liable for such levies as property owner of unsold individual erven reflected on registered general plan establishing township.

Township - Establishment—Subdivision of land—Ownership—Developer becoming registered owner of unsold individual erven in township upon registration of general plan establishing township—Deeds Registries Act 47 of 1937, ss 46 and 47.

NELSON MANDELA BAY METRO v GEORGIOU t/a GEORGIOU GUESTHOUSE & SPA AND OTHERS (ECP)

GOOSEN J

2015 AUGUST 20; OCTOBER 20

Local authority - Town planning—Town-planning and zoning schemes—Rezoning—Approval—Conditional approval—Ambit of conditions which may be lawfully imposed—Whether competent to approve rezoning subject to removal of restrictive title conditions—Land Use Planning Ordinance 85 of 1985, s 42.

NEDBANK LTD v STEYN AND OTHERS (SCA)

BRAND JA, LEWIS JA, MBHA JA, MEYER AJA and MAYAT AJA

2015 MARCH 20, 25
[2015] ZASCA 30

Administration of estates - Claim against deceased estate—Procedure for enforcing—Creditor not precluded by the Administration of Estates Act 66 of 1965 from instituting action in terms of its common-law right against deceased estate for recovery of a debt owed by deceased—Administration of Estates Act 66 of 1965.

TWALA v MEC FOR EDUCATION, EASTERN CAPE AND OTHERS (ECB)

VAN ZYL ADJP

2015 NOVEMBER 5, 13

Administrative law - Access to information—Access to information held by public body—Request—Refusal—Internal appeal—Late lodging of appeal and failure to seek condonation from body in question—Consequences—Whether applicant barred from seeking judicial relief—Promotion of Access to Information Act 2 of 2000, s 75(1)(a)(i), s 75(2) and s 78(1).

HARVEY v NILAND AND OTHERS (ECG)

PLASKET J

2015 OCTOBER 15; DECEMBER 3

Constitutional law - Human rights—Right to privacy—Privacy of communications—Social-media communications—Admissibility in evidence—Discretion of court—Unlawfully hacked Facebook posts—Constitution, s 14(d).

Electronic communications and transactions - Unauthorised access to data—Admissibility in evidence—Though conduct criminalised under ECTA, evidence so obtained not ipso facto inadmissible—Court retaining usual discretion to admit—Electronic Communications and Transactions Act 25 of 2002, s 86(1).

Evidence - Admissibility—Electronic communications—Unauthorised access—Data so obtained not ipso facto inadmissible despite criminalisation of conduct under ECTA—Court retaining usual discretion to admit unlawfully obtained evidence—Electronic Communications and Transactions Act 25 of 2002, s 86(1).

Evidence - Admissibility—Social-media evidence—Unlawfully hacked Facebook posts—Balance between evidence-gathering and privacy—Evidence, though unlawfully obtained, revealing wrongdoing essential to applicant’s case—No other lawful means of obtaining evidence—Public interest in exposure of respondent’s conduct overriding his expectation of privacy—Evidence admissible.

Media - Social media—Social-media evidence—Admissibility—Unlawfully hacked social-media posts—Evidence admissible at discretion of court.

NAIDOO AND OTHERS v KALIANJEE NO AND OTHERS (SCA)

MPATI P, LEACH JA, PETSE JA, WILLIS JA and MAYAT AJA

2015 MAY 12; JUNE 29
[2015] ZASCA 102

Insolvency - Trustee—Property passing to trustee—Warrant to take possession of insolvent’s property—Issued in circumstances where assets already under judicial attachment—Whether magistrate precluded from issuing warrant—Insolvency Act 24 of 1936, s 69(3).

Insolvency - Trustee—Property passing to trustee—Warrant to take possession of insolvent’s property—Distinction between such warrant and one issued under CPA—Provisions applicable to issuing of warrant under CPA not applicable to issuing of warrant under Insolvency Act—Insolvency Act 24 of 1936, s 69(3); Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977, s 21.

MATHALE v LINDA AND ANOTHER (CC)

MOGOENG CJ, MOSENEKE DCJ, CAMERON J, JAFTA J, KHAMPEPE J, MADLANGA J, MATOJANE AJ, NKABINDE J, VAN DER WESTHUIZEN J, WALLIS AJ and ZONDO J

2015 AUGUST 13; DECEMBER 2
[2015] ZACC 38

Magistrates’ court - Civil proceedings—Practice—Execution—Execution order under s 78 of Magistrates’ Courts Act 32 of 1944—Whether appealable—Approach to be adopted by courts—Appealability dependent on whether order final in effect in terms of s 83(b) of Magistrates’ Courts Act 32 of 1944.

LAND AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT BANK OF SOUTH AFRICA t/a THE LAND BANK v FACTAPROPS 1052 CC AND ANOTHER (GP)

MSIMEKI J

2014 OCTOBER 28; 2015 SEPTEMBER 9

Mortgage - Mortgage bond—Nature—Not only applying to immovable property—Special notarial bond constituting mortgage bond—Security by Means of Movable Property Act 57 of 1993, s 4; Insolvency Act 24 of 1936, s 2.

Mortgage - Notarial bond—Special notarial bond—Nature—Constituting mortgage bond—Security by Means of Movable Property Act 57 of 1993, s 4; Insolvency Act 24 of 1936, s 2.

Prescription - Extinctive prescription—Period of prescription—Debt secured by special notarial bond—Special notarial bond constituting mortgage bond to which 30-year prescription period applying—Prescription Act 68 of 1969, s 11(a)(i).

TSHWANE CITY AND OTHERS v NAMBITI TECHNOLOGIES (PTY) LTD (SCA)

MAYA DP, BOSIELO JA, WALLIS JA, PETSE JA and DAMBUZA JA

2015 NOVEMBER 17, 26
[2015] ZASCA 167

Administrative law - Administrative action — What constitutes—Cancellation of municipal tender prior to adjudication—Not constituting administrative action—Promotion of Administrative Justice Act 3 of 2000, s 1.

Government procurement - Procurement process—Cancellation of tender prior to adjudication—Not constituting administrative action and therefore not subject to review under PAJA—Promotion of Administrative Justice Act 3 of 2000, s 1.

Court - Powers of—Separation of powers—Between judiciary and executive—Order reinstating cancelled municipal tender—Compelling state organ to consider and award tender it decided not to proceed with may infringe on doctrine of separation of powers.

NATIONAL TREASURY AND ANOTHER v KUBUKELI (SCA)

MPATI P, MHLANTLA JA, MAJIEDT JA, SALDULKER JA and VAN DER MERWE AJA

2015 SEPTEMBER 4, 30
[2015] ZASCA 141

Constitutional law - Foundational values—Rule of law—Rational decision making—Exercise of public power—Fiscal investigation into municipality’s finances—Right to be heard incidental to main purpose of investigation—Failure to interview particular individual not justifying finding that investigation arbitrary or irrational.

NEL v ROAD ACCIDENT FUND (GP)

FABRICIUS J

2015 NOVEMBER 6; DECEMBER 7

Motor vehicle accident - Compensation—Claim against Road Accident Fund—Limits—Limit in respect of loss of income or support—Apportionment of liability for contributory negligence to occur before application of limit—Road Accident Fund Act 56 of 1996, s 17(4)(c); Apportionment of Damages Act 34 of 1956, s 1(1)(a).

SOUTH AFRICAN BROADCASTING CORPORATION SOC LTD AND OTHERS v DEMOCRATIC ALLIANCE AND OTHERS (SCA)

MPATI P, NAVSA JA, PONNAN JA, SWAIN JA and DAMBUZA JA

2015 SEPTEMBER 18; OCTOBER 8
[2015] ZASCA 156

Constitutional law - Chapter 9 institutions—Public Protector—Powers—to take appropriate remedial action—Nature of—Constitution, s 182(1) (c).

Constitutional law - Chapter 9 institutions—Public Protector—Powers—To report—Status of findings in report—Constitution, s 182(1) (b).

SOUTH AFRICAN AIRWAYS SOC v BDFM PUBLISHERS (PTY) LTD AND OTHERS (GJ)

SUTHERLAND J

2015 DECEMBER 9, 17

Evidence - Privilege—Confidentiality—Enforcement—Any relief sought to protect confidentiality subject to public-interest override—In circumstances of present case, public interest in being informed outweighing state organ’s rights to confidentiality—Constitution, s 16.

Evidence - Privilege—Confidentiality—Legal advice privilege—Ambit—Privilege against disclosure not absolute—Protection of confidentiality of any information, including privileged legal advice, subject to public-interest override—In circumstances of present case, public interest in being informed outweighing state organ’s rights to confidentiality—Constitution, s 16.

Evidence - Privilege—Confidentiality—Legal advice privilege—Ambit—Not extending to preservation of confidentiality of advice disclosed by unauthorised means—Constituting only negative right to prevent admission into evidence of advice obtained from legal advisor in confidence.

Evidence - Privilege—Confidentiality—Legal advice privilege—Waiver—Imputed waiver—Strict test—Whether to impute waiver from delay in claiming confidentiality.

Evidence - Privilege—Confidentiality—Unauthorised disclosure of confidential information—Remedy—Interdictory relief inappropriate—Once disclosed, confidentiality lost and its protection futile.

Practice - Applications and motions—Urgent applications—Default procedure set out for matters in respect of which less than 24 hours’ notice is to be given—Mandatory for applicant’s attorney to follow such procedure.

MASSTORES (PTY) LTD v PICK ’n PAY RETAILERS (PTY) LTD AND ANOTHER (SCA)

MAYA DP, LEACH JA, THERON JA, MAJIEDT JA and ZONDI JA

2015 NOVEMBER 13, 25
[2015] ZASCA 164

Delict - Specific forms—Interference with contractual relationship—What constitutes—A and B both leasing spaces in shopping centre—In terms of A’s contract with landlord, A restrained from operating supermarket; in terms of B’s contract with landlord, B given exclusive right to operate supermarket—A operating supermarket in breach of its restraint preventing B from obtaining performance in terms of its right to exclusivity—Whether requirements of delict met.

Delict - Specific forms—Interference with contractual relationship—Inducement not prerequisite for successful action.

Lease - Huur gaat voor koop rule—When applicable—Inapplicability of rule to ‘collateral rights’ unconnected with lease—Exclusivity clause in lease agreement integral part of that lease and not collateral right.

OCTOBER AND ANOTHER NO v HENDRICKS AND ANOTHER (WCC)

ROGERS AJ

2013 JANUARY 29, 31

Land - Unlawful occupation—Eviction—Statutory eviction—Unlawful occupier—Whether holder of bare ownership in context of usufruct could be unlawful occupier—Prevention of Illegal Eviction from and Unlawful Occupation of Land Act 19 of 1998, s 1.

COMMISSIONER, SOUTH AFRICAN REVENUE SERVICE v STEPNEY INVESTMENTS (PTY) LTD (SCA)

NAVSA JA, SHONGWE JA, MAJIEDT JA, MBHA JA and VAN DER MERWE AJA

2015 SEPTEMBER 8, 30
[2015] ZASCA 138

Revenue - Capital gains tax—Base cost of asset—Pre-valuation date assets—Valuation of market value on valuation date—Proof—Must be based on actual financial information available at time of making valuation, not on selected information closer to valuation date—Income Tax Act 58 of 1962, sch 8 para 29(7)(b).

BLASTRITE (PTY) LTD v GENPACO LTD (WCC)

SCHIPPERS J

2015 MAY 11; JUNE 1

Practice - Intermediate proceedings—Security for costs—Peregrinus—Common-law practice in terms of which peregrinus plaintiff could be called upon to furnish security for costs—Whether amounting to unfair discrimination and/or violation of constitutional right to equality.

 

 SOUTH AFRICAN CRIMINAL LAW REPORTS
 TABLE OF CASES
 
  • S v Dalindyebo 2016 (1) SACR 329 (SCA)
  • National Director of Public Prosecutions v Ramlutchman 2016 (1) SACR 362 (KZP)
  • S v DJ 2016 (1) SACR 377 (SCA)
  • Goqwana v Minister of Safety and Security NO and Others 2016 (1) SACR 384 (SCA)
  • In re JY 2016 (1) SACR 399 (KZP)
  • S v SN 2016 (1) SACR 404 (GP)
  • S v Chauke 2016 (1) SACR 408 (SCA)
  • S v Mathonsi 2016 (1) SACR 417 (GP)
  • S v Tladi and Others 2016 (1) SACR 424 (GP)
 
 FLYNOTES
 

S v DALINDYEBO (SCA)

NAVSA JA, PONNAN JA, SALDULKER JA, MATHOPO JA and BAARTMAN AJA

2015 AUGUST 21; OCTOBER 1
[2015] ZASCA 144

Arson - What constitutes—Setting fire to one’s own property—Where done with intent to prejudice property interests of another, arson can be committed.

Sentence - Imposition of—Factors to be taken into account—Abuse of position of authority—Shameful abuse of position of authority by king who burnt down homes of certain subjects, kidnapped others and personally brutally assaulted three young men—Such heinous crimes calling for severe sentence.

NATIONAL DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC PROSECUTIONS v RAMLUTCHMAN (KZP)

D PILLAY J and BEZUIDENHOUT AJ

2015 MARCH 23; APRIL 20

Prevention of crime - Confiscation order in terms of Prevention of Organised Crime Act 121 of 1998—Benefits of crime—Restricted to profit or gain and not entire proceeds of crime.

S v DJ (SCA)

MAYA DP, THERON JA and MATHOPO JA

2015 SEPTEMBER 9; OCTOBER 2
[2015] ZASCA 151

Sentence - Plea-and-sentence agreement—Presiding officer of view that proposed sentence unjust—Parties to be informed of this and proposed substitute sentence at outset of trial—Criminal Procedure Act, s 105A(9)(a).

GOQWANA v MINISTER OF SAFETY AND SECURITY NO AND OTHERS (SCA)

MPATI P, PETSE JA, WILLIS JA, SWAIN JA and ZONDI JA

2015 NOVEMBER 13, 30
[2015] ZASCA 186

Search and seizure - Search warrant—Validity of—Identification of person conducting search—Specific official entrusted to execute search should be identified.

Search and seizure - Search warrant—Validity of—Identification of offence for which warrant obtained—Specific statutory offence, including statute and section applicable, should be stated.

Search and seizure - Search warrant—Validity of—Affidavit on which warrant granted by magistrate—Should be made available to person in charge of premises at time of search.

IN RE JY (KZP)

K PILLAY J and MAHARAJ AJ

2015 MARCH 3

Mental health - Involuntary healthcare user—Interaction between Mental Health Care Act 17 of 2002 and s 77(6)(a)(ii) of Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977—Provisions of former cannot be dispensed with or superseded by latter.

S v SN (GP)

TUCHTEN J and FOURIE J

2015 APRIL 20

Trial - Mental state of accused—Enquiry in terms of s 77 of Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977—Proceedings in terms of s 77(6) (a)—Magistrate failing to order detention in terms of s 77(6) (a) (ii) (aa) after finding accused committed no offence—Application of provisions of section peremptory—Such failure accordingly constituting gross irregularity—Decision set aside on review.

S v CHAUKE (SCA)

MAYA DP, MHLANTLA JA, THERON JA, VAN DER MERWE AJA and BAARTMAN AJA

2015 NOVEMBER 11, 30
[2015] ZASCA 181

Trial - Mental state of accused—Enquiry in terms of ss 77, 78 and 79 of Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977—Nature of enquiry—Psychiatrist reporting that accused not suffering from any mental illness or defect after unspecified examination lasting just one day—Such not meeting requirements set out in ss 79(3) and (4)—Report to be based on holistic assessment of all relevant facts and circumstances.

S v MATHONSI (GP)

MAKHAFOLA J

2015 JUNE 3

Bail - Application for—Duty of court hearing application—Second application based on new evidence—State and accused’s attorney merely addressing court and not presenting evidence—Procedure flawed—Duty of court to guide parties on how proceedings should unfold.

S v TLADI AND OTHERS (GP)

POTTERILL J and JANSE VAN NIEUWENHUIZEN J

2015 MARCH 13, 17

Rape - Sentence—Factors to be taken into account—Age of accused—Huge disparity in sentences meted out to young offender and cooffender only one year older than he—Disparity disturbingly inappropriate—Same sentence imposed on offenders on appeal.

 

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