Dear South African Law Reports and Criminal Law Reports subscriber
Herewith the cases of interest in the February reports.
JUDGMENTS OF INTEREST IN THE FEBRUARY EDITIONS OF THE SALR AND THE SACR
SOUTH AFRICAN LAW REPORTS
Cheque stolen in the mail, so was there payment?
SARS sent Stabilpave a tax refund, but the cheque was stolen in the post. In defence of Stabilpave’s action for payment, SARS contended that it had paid, and that Stabilpave had assumed the risk of transit when it elected that payment method. Stabilpave (Pty) Ltd v South African Revenue Service 2014 (1) SA 350 (SCA)
Payment to child's guardian
Although a child’s guardians have the power and the obligation to manage the child’s financial affairs, a court cannot simply order that substantial funds be paid to a guardian without first investigating the circumstances under which such funds are likely to be administered, including assessing the motivations, qualifications, and ability of a guardian to properly administer the funds. Dube NO v Road Accident Fund 2014 (1) SA 577 (GSJ)
Ancestor's call prevents return to work
In this case an employer ordered the employee to return to work on a certain day, but she disobeyed in the sincere belief that she would suffer misfortune, if she failed to heed her ancestors’ call to attend training to become a traditional healer. Was her dismissal unfair? Kievits Kroon Country Estate (Pty) Ltd v Mmoledi and Others 2014 (1) SA 585 (SCA)
SOUTH AFRICAN CRIMINAL LAW REPORTS
The juvenile accused successfully completed a diversion programme, but when he had attained majority he was charged again for the same offences, and convicted. The accused had a legitimate expectation in the circumstances of this case that he would not be prosecuted again. Basic fairness demanded that the conviction be set aside. S v EA 2014 (1) SACR 183 (NCK)
Restorative justice requirement for parole
The prisoner’s application for parole was delayed by the parole board, so that the prisoner could comply with restorative justice. The court described this concept as a fabrication of a process, whereby it was required of a prisoner to make peace with the family of the victim, in this case people outside the borders of our country. The court described the whole process as an illegal concoction undermining the rights of prisoners to be released on parole when they legally qualified for it. Gwebu v Minister of Correctional Services and Others 2014 (1) SACR 191 (ECG)
HIV infection and attempted murder
The accused was employed as an HIV/Aids counsellor at a clinic run by the Department of Health, and knew that he was HIV-positive when he had unprotected sex with the complainant, who had come to the clinic to be tested and had found that she was HIV-negative. His six year sentence was confirmed on appeal. His mens rea was in the form of dolus eventualis and the court could take judicial notice of the fact HIV/Aids had no cure and infection with the virus was likely to lead to a reduced life span. S v Phiri 2014 (1) SACR 211 (GNP)
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BMW AG v Grandmark International (Pty) Ltd and Another 2014 (1) SA 323 (SCA)
Baphiring Community and Others v Tshwaranani Projects CC and Others 2014 (1) SA 330 (SCA)
City of Tshwane v Marius Blom & GC Germishuizen Inc and Another 2014 (1) SA 341 (SCA)
Stabilpave (Pty) Ltd v South African Revenue Service 2014 (1) SA 350 (SCA)
Heese NO v Road Accident Fund 2014 (1) SA 357 (WCC)
Peninsula Eye Clinic (Pty) Ltd v Newlands Surgical Clinic and Others 2014 (1) SA 381 (WCC)
Ndlovu v Road Accident Fund 2014 (1) SA 415 (GSJ)
Gaertner and Others v Minister of Finance and Others 2014 (1) SA 442 (CC)
Centre for Child Law v Minister of Social Development 2014 (1) SA 468 (GNP)
Absa Bank Ltd v Le Roux and Others 2014 (1) SA 475 (WCC)
Vlok NO and Others v Sun International South Africa Ltd and Others 2014 (1) SA 487 (GSJ)
Minister of Local Government, Western Cape v Lagoonbay Lifestyle Estate (Pty) Ltd and Others 2014 (1) SA 521 (CC)
Absa Bank Ltd v Ukwanda Leisure Holdings (Pty) Ltd 2014 (1) SA 550 (GSJ)
Dube NO v Road Accident Fund 2014 (1) SA 577 (GSJ)
Kievits Kroon Country Estate (Pty) Ltd v Mmoledi and Others 2014 (1) SA 585 (SCA)
Feni v Gxothiwe and Another 2014 (1) SA 594 (ECG)
Allpay Consolidated Investment Holdings (Pty) Ltd and Others v Chief Executive Officer, South African Social Security Agency, and Others 2014 (1) SA 604 (CC)
BMW AG v GRANDMARK INTERNATIONAL (PTY) LTD AND ANOTHER (SCA)
BRAND JA, NUGENT JA, CACHALIA JA, WALLIS JA and SWAIN AJA
2013 AUGUST 26; SEPTEMBER 18
Intellectual property—Design—Registrability—Aesthetic design—Motor vehicle components—Replacement parts—Whether registrable as aesthetic designs—Designs Act 195 of 1993, s 14.
Intellectual property—Design—Registrability—Aesthetic design—Motor vehicle components—While motor vehicles qualifying as aesthetic designs, components that make up that design not necessarily also aesthetic designs—Designs of such components to be judged for qualities of individual components, independently of design of built-up vehicle—Where such components purely functional, they do not qualify for registration as aesthetic designs—Designs Act 195 of 1993, s 14.
BAPHIRING COMMUNITY AND OTHERS v TSHWARANANI PROJECTS CC AND OTHERS (SCA)
CACHALIA JA, SHONGWE JA, MAJIEDT JA, VAN DER MERWE AJA and MBHA AJA
2013 MAY 2; SEPTEMBER 6
Land—Land reform—Restitution—Feasibility of restoration—Assessment—In making assessment court may take into account cost of restoring right in land—Restitution of Land Rights Act 22 of 1994, s 33(cA).
Land—Land reform—Restitution—Feasibility of restoration—Duty to present evidence—Commission has duty to place facts on feasibility before court—If commission unable to give evidence on budgetary matter, duty to do so becomes that of minister—Restitution of Land Rights Act 22 of 1994, s 33(cA).
Land—Land reform—Restitution—Feasibility of restoration—Absence of evidence—In such instance court should order commission or minister to present evidence concerned—Restitution of Land Rights Act 22 of 1994, s 33(cA).
CITY OF TSHWANE v MARIUS BLOM & GC GERMISHUIZEN INC AND ANOTHER (SCA)
MTHIYANE DP, LEWIS JA, SHONGWE JA, PETSE JA and ZONDI AJA
2013 MAY 22, 31
Local authority—Rates—Imposition—Differential rates—Levying of different rates for different categories of property—Statutory categories not exhaustive—Competent for municipality to add to list—Municipality may include in its rates policy ‘non-permitted use’ category for purpose of determining applicable rates—Local Government: Municipal Property Rates Act 6 of 2004, s 8(1) and 8(2).
Local authority—Powers and duties—To impose rates—Constituting original legislative act—Not subject to administrative law—Setting of rates and determination of categories of rateable property cannot be challenged simply on ground of unfairness—Constitution, s 229(1)(a).
STABILPAVE (PTY) LTD v SOUTH AFRICAN REVENUE SERVICE (SCA)
BRAND JA, LEWIS JA, BOSIELO JA, THERON JA and MEYER AJA
2013 SEPTEMBER 12, 26
Payment—What constitutes—Cheque sent through post stolen—Creditor not afforded choice as to mode of payment—Nor having chosen, expressly or by necessary implication, that payment should be effected by cheque through post—Risk of loss remaining with debtor—Defence of payment dismissed.
HEESE NO v ROAD ACCIDENT FUND (WCC)
VELDHUIZEN J, ROGERS J and SCHIPPERS J
2013 JULY 24; OCTOBER 23
Damages—Bodily injuries—Loss of earning capacity—Proof—Plaintiff’s business would likely have failed anyway—Plaintiff unable to prove patrimonial loss associated with loss of earning capacity—No claim for loss of earning capacity.
Damages—Bodily injuries—Loss of earning capacity—Exploitation of earning capacity contingent on commission of illegality—Legal and policy considerations prohibiting award of damages.
PENINSULA EYE CLINIC (PTY) LTD v NEWLANDS SURGICAL CLINIC AND OTHERS (WCC)
2013 AUGUST 16; OCTOBER 22
Company—Register of companies—Deregistration of company—Reinstatement of registration—Effect of—Reinstatement retrospectively re-establishes corporate personality and ownership of property but does not validate acts performed during period of deregistration—Companies Act 71 of 2008, s 82(4).
Company—Register of companies—Deregistration of company—Reinstatement of registration—Further relief—If reinstatement is obtained under s 82(4), additional relief may afterwards be obtained under s 83(4)—Companies Act 71 of 2008, ss 82(4) and 83(4).
NDLOVU v ROAD ACCIDENT FUND (GSJ)
2013 APRIL 10–12; AUGUST 12
Motor vehicle accident—Compensation—Claim against Road Accident Fund—Expert evidence—Medico-legal reports—Must distinguish between primary source data such as hospital records, secondary sources, and claimant’s assertions—If expert accepts latter, that constitutes opinion evidence and expert to qualify himself as capable of providing such opinion and set out process of reasoning upon which decision to support claimant’s assertions reached.
Motor vehicle accident—Road Accident Fund—Rights and duties—Duty of RAF’s legal representatives to properly prepare case and cross-examine—Total failure to comply—Adverse impact on judicial process highlighted.
GAERTNER AND OTHERS v MINISTER OF FINANCE AND OTHERS (CC)
MOGOENG CJ, MOSENEKE DCJ, CAMERON J, FRONEMAN J, JAFTA J, MADLANGA J, MHLANTLA AJ, NKABINDE J, SKWEYIYA J, VAN DER WESTHUIZEN J and ZONDO J
2013 SEPTEMBER 12; NOVEMBER 14
Revenue—Customs and excise—Search of premises—Court confirming high court’s declaration that sections contrary to Constitution and invalid—Declaration made non-retrospective and suspended for six months—Reading-in ordered for period of suspension—Customs and Excise Act 91 of 1964, s 4(4)(a)(i)–(ii), 4(4)(b), 4(5) and 4(6).
CENTRE FOR CHILD LAW v MINISTER OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (GNP)
2013 OCTOBER 1, 30
Children—Adoption—By wife, husband or life-partner of child’s parent—This permissible, provided child is adoptable—Children’s Act 38 of 2005, ss 230(3) and 231(1)(c).
Children—Adoption—Requirements—Child adoptable—Child adoptable if abandoned—Child abandoned where only one parent has abandoned it—Children’s Act 38 of 2005, s 230(3)(c).
Children—Adoption—Requirements—Child adoptable—Child adoptable if abandoned—Abandoned defined as deserted—Child deserted if noncustodian parent consents to custodian parent’s wife, husband or life-partner adopting it—Children’s Act 38 of 2005, ss 1 and 230(3)(c).
Children—Adoption—By wife, husband or life-partner of child’s parent—Court must order that adoption order not terminating responsibilities and rights of child’s parent—This unless sound reasons not to—Children’s Act 38 of 2005, s 242(1)(a).
ABSA BANK LTD v LE ROUX AND OTHERS (WCC)
2013 AUGUST 28; OCTOBER 7
Practice—Judgments and orders—Summary judgment—Verifying affidavit—Requirement that deponent able to swear positively to facts—Officer of corporate entity may rely on data messages for his personal knowledge in deposing to affidavit—Uniform Rules of Court, rule 32(2); and Electronic Communications and Transactions Act 25 of 2002, s 15(4).
VLOK NO AND OTHERS v SUN INTERNATIONAL SOUTH AFRICA LTD AND OTHERS (GSJ)
2013 JULY 23, 24; OCTOBER 18
Company—Fundamental transactions—Compulsory acquisitions and squeeze-out—Acceptance of offer for acquisition of shares by 90% of holders—Notification to remaining holders that offer or desiring to acquire remaining shares—Application for order imposing conditions of acquisition different from those of original offer—30-day time period—Section excluding power to condone bringing of proceedings outside stipulated period—Companies Act 71 of 2008, s 124(2).
Court—High court—Powers—To condone non-compliance with statutory time period—Whether court having general power to condone non-compliance independently of interpretation of statute.
MINISTER OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT, WESTERN CAPE v LAGOON BAY LIFESTYLE ESTATE (PTY) LTD AND OTHERS (CC)
MOSENEKE DCJ, CAMERON J, FRONEMAN J, JAFTA J, MADLANGA J, MHLANTLA AJ, NKABINDE J, SKWEYIYA J, VAN DER WESTHUIZEN J and ZONDO J
2013 AUGUST 20; NOVEMBER 20
Local authority—Town planning—Town-planning and zoning schemes—Rezoning—Granting and refusal of applications—Minister refusing application for rezoning and subdivision after it was granted by local authority—Ambit of minister’s decision-making powers under LUPO—Whether refusal ultra vires—Whether refusal precluded by municipality’s initial decision to approve—Standard of ‘desirability’ of rezoning—Socio-economic impact—Land Use and Planning Ordinance 15 of 1985 (WC), ss 16 and 25.
ABSA BANK LTD v UKWANDA LEISURE HOLDINGS (PTY) LTD (GSJ)
CJ CLAASSEN J
2013 SEPTEMBER 9
Administrative law—Administrative action—What constitutes—Decision by Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE)—JSE dismissing complaint by client that trading member in default of JSE’s Derivative Rules—Such constituting administrative action as defined in Promotion of Administrative Justice Act 3 of 2000, s 1.
Administrative law—Decision of functionary—Collateral challenge to validity of decision—Generally only available in proceedings in which administrative authority seeking to coercively enforce invalid act against party challenging validity of that act—Even if more widely framed, collateral challenge not available if applicant could have applied to have impugned decision set aside on review, but chose not to.
DUBE NO v ROAD ACCIDENT FUND (GSJ)
2012 NOVEMBER 13; 2013 MARCH 11
Children—Award of damages to minor child—Administration of funds by trust—Appropriate provisions of trust instrument set out.
Children—Award of damages to minor child—Whether payment to be released to guardian—Enquiries to be made by court.
KIEVITS KROON COUNTRY ESTATE (PTY) LTD v MMOLEDI AND OTHERS (SCA)
BRAND JA, CACHALIA JA, LEACH JA, WILLIS JA and ZONDI AJA
2013 NOVEMBER 11, 29
Labour law—Dismissal—Refusal to obey order—Whether refusal justified—Employer’s order to return to work disobeyed by employee who believed harm would befall her were she not to heed call of ancestors to attend training—Employee justified in disobeying order—Dismissal unfair.
FENI v GXOTHIWE AND ANOTHER (ECG)
2013 OCTOBER 24; NOVEMBER 7
Close corporations—Members—Unfairly prejudicial, unjust or inequitable conduct—Application for orders for termination of membership, valuation of member’s interest and directive to sell member’s interest to applicant—Oppressive conduct of member preventing applicant from adducing requisite evidence of fair value of member’s interest—Just and equitable to grant relief in circumstances—Close Corporations Act 69 of 1984, s 49.
ALLPAY CONSOLIDATED INVESTMENT HOLDINGS (PTY) LTD AND OTHERS v CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER, SOUTH AFRICAN SOCIAL SECURITY AGENCY, AND OTHERS (CC)*
MOGOENG CJ, MOSENEKE DCJ, CAMERON J, FRONEMAN J, JAFTA J, NKABINDE J, SKWEYIYA J, VAN DER WESTHUIZEN J, ZONDO J, MADLANGA J and MHLANTLA AJ
2013 SEPTEMBER 10; NOVEMBER 29
Government procurement—Procurement process—Irregularities—Whether invalidating award—Proper approach to establish whether irregularity factually occurred and then to legally evaluate whether it amounting to ground of review under PAJA—Where appropriate, such evaluation to take into account materiality of any deviance from legal requirements before concluding that PAJA ground of review established—Once so concluded, Constitution requiring decision to be declared unlawful and that just and equitable order be made—Constitution, ss 172(1)(a) and 172(1)(b); Promotion of Administrative Justice Act 3 of 2000, s 8.
Government procurement—Procurement process—Irregularities—Materiality of non-compliance with legal requirements—Determined by assessing whether purpose/s tender requirements intended to serve had been substantively achieved.
Government procurement—Procurement process—Irregularities—Failure to comply with constitutional and legislative procurement framework—Such framework constituting legally binding supply chain management prescripts—Once particular administrative process prescribed by law, it was subject to norms of procedural fairness codified in Promotion of Administrative Justice Act 3 of 2000.
Government procurement—Procurement process—Irregularities—Failure to objectively determine tenderer’s substantive black economic empowerment credentials—Such failure reviewable under PAJA as ‘non-compliance with mandatory and material condition’ and ‘failure to consider a relevant consideration’—Promotion of Administrative Justice Act 3 of 2000, ss 6(2)(b) and 6(2)(e)(iii).
[* Corruption Watch and the Centre for Child Law acted as amici curiae.]
Freedom Under Law v National Director of Public Prosecutions and Others 2014 (1) SACR 111 (GNP)
S v Chake 2014 (1) SACR 177 (SCA)
S v EA 2014 (1) SACR 183 (NCK)
Gwebu v Minister of Correctional Services and Others 2014 (1) SACR 191 (GNP)
S v Oosthuizen 2014 (1) SACR 192 (ECG)
S v EN 2014 (1) SACR 198 (SCA)
S v Shai 2014 (1) SACR 204 (GNP)
S v Phiri 2014 (1) SACR 211 (GNP)
FREEDOM UNDER LAW v NATIONAL DIRECTOR OF PUBLICC PROSECUTIONS AND OTHERS (GNP)
2013 SEPTEMBER 11–12, 23
Criminal procedure—Prosecution—Prosecuting authority—National Director of Public Prosecutions—Power to review prosecutorial decisions—In circumstances of present case, failure to exercise such power not complying with constitutional obligation of public functionaries to be responsive, accountable and transparent—Constitution, ss 179(5)(d) and 195.
S v CHAKE (SCA)
NAVSA JA, LEACH JA, TSHIQI JA, SALDULKER JA and SWAIN AJA
2013 SEPTEMBER 10, 30
Appeal—Leave to appeal—From magistrates’ court to High Court—In what cases—Where person sentenced to life imprisonment by regional court in terms of s 51(1) of Criminal Law Amendment Act 105 of 1997—Amendments to s 309(1)(a) of Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977 by Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 having effect of removing automatic right of appeal to high court from persons sentenced to life imprisonment by regional magistrates’ court.
S v EA (NCK)
KGOMO JP and ERASMUS AJ
2013 JUNE 3, 28
Juvenile offenders—Diversion of—From criminal justice system—Effect of diversion—Accused successfully completing diversion programme, but charged again for same offences when he had attained majority, and convicted—Accused having legitimate expectation in circumstances of this case that he would not be prosecuted again—Basic fairness demanding that conviction be set aside.
GWEBU v MINISTER OF CORRECTIONAL SERVICES AND OTHERS (GNP)
2013 JUNE 25, 26
Prisoner—Parole—Release on—Requirements for release—Application delayed by Parole Board for prisoner to comply with ‘restorative justice’—Process is an illegal concoction undermining rights of prisoners to be released on parole when they legally qualified for it.
S v OOSTHUIZEN (ECG)
LOWE J and MAJIKI J
2013 AUGUST 8, 23
Theft—What constitutes—Proceeds of cheque deposited into business’s bank account as purchase price for business—Proceeds withdrawn before contract cancelled—Money withdrawn could not be regarded as anything other than property of business, and owner of business entitled to withdraw it.
S v EN (SCA)
MPATI P, LEWIS JA, VAN HEERDEN JA, SHONGWE JA and ERASMUS AJA
2012 SEPTEMBER 11, 28
Rape—Sentence—Life imprisonment—Minimum sentence in terms of Criminal Law Amendment Act 105 of 1997—Sufficient information should be placed before court, especially where victim is minor and sentence of life imprisonment is being considered—Complainant in present case, 15-year-old stepdaughter of appellant, not suffering any serious physical injuries and had submitted to sexual intercourse, having accepted gifts and money—Life imprisonment disproportionate to crime and replaced with sentence of 15 years’ imprisonment.
S v SHAI (GNP)
HASSIM AJ, MOLEFE AJ and PHATUDI J
2012 OCTOBER 1, 8
Sentence—Prescribed sentences—Minimum sentences—Imposition of in terms of Criminal Law Amendment Act 105 of 1997—‘Substantial and compelling circumstances’—What constitutes—Rape—Young first offender—Complainant a 13-year-old girl who had suffered no apparent other physiological or psychological harm—Complainant’s family having accepted accused’s apology—Circumstances justifying sentence of 12 years’ imprisonment
S v PHIRI (GNP)
MAKGOKA J and BALOYI AJ
2013 MAY 3; AUGUST 8
Murder—Attempted murder—What constitutes—HIV-positive accused having unprotected sex with partner whom he knew was HIV-negative—Judicial notice could be taken of fact that at present no cure for HIV/Aids.
Murder—Attempted murder—Sentence—HIV-positive accused having unprotected sex with partner whom he knew was HIV-negative—Sentence of six years’ imprisonment confirmed on appeal.
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